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Maximiliaan L Notenboom, Giovanni Melina, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Johanna J M Takkenberg, Magdi H Yacoub, et al.

November 08, 2023 | JACC: Cardiology


Importance: The Ross procedure as treatment for adults with aortic valve disease (AVD) has been the subject of renewed interest.

Objective: To evaluate the long-term clinical and echocardiographic outcomes following the Ross procedure for the treatment of adults with AVD.

Design, setting, and participants: This post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial included adult patients (age <69 years) who underwent a Ross procedure for the treatment of AVD, including those with active endocarditis, rheumatic AVD, decreased ejection fraction, and previous cardiac surgery. The trial, conducted from September 1, 1994, to May 31, 2001, compared homograft root replacement with the Ross procedure at a single center. Data after 2010 were collected retrospectively in November and December 2022.

Exposure: Ross procedure.

Main outcomes and measures: The primary end point was long-term survival among patients who underwent the Ross procedure compared with that in the age-, country of origin- and sex-matched general population. Secondary end points were freedom from any reintervention, autograft reintervention, or homograft reintervention and time-related valve function, autograft diameter, and functional status.

Results: This study included 108 adults (92 [85%] male) with a median age of 38 years (range, 19-66 years). Median duration of clinical follow-up was 24.1 years (IQR, 22.6-26.1 years; 2488 patient-years), with 98% follow-up completeness. Of these patients, 9 (8%) had active endocarditis and 45 (42%) underwent reoperations. The main hemodynamic lesion was stenosis in 30 (28%) and regurgitation in 49 (45%). There was 1 perioperative death (0.9%). Twenty-five year survival was 83.0% (95% CI, 75.5%-91.2%), representing a relative survival of 99.1% (95% CI, 91.8%-100%) compared with the general population (83.7%). At 25 years, freedom from any reintervention was 71.1% (95% CI, 61.6%-82.0%); from autograft reintervention, 80.3% (95% CI, 71.9%-89.6%); and from homograft reintervention, 86.3% (95% CI, 79.0%-94.3%). Thirty-day mortality after the first Ross-related reintervention was 0% and after all Ross-related reinterventions was 3.8% (n = 1); 10-year survival after reoperation was 96.2% (95% CI, 89.0%-100%).

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