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James S.Gammie, MD, David H. Adams, MD, et. al.


Data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database were analyzed to identify trends in patient characteristics and outcomes of mitral valve operations in North America.


All patients with isolated primary mitral valve operations with or without tricuspid valve repair, surgical atrial fibrillation ablation, or atrial septal defect closure performed July 2011 to September 2016 were identified. A subgroup analysis assessed patients with degenerative leaflet prolapse (DLP).


Isolated primary mitral valve operations were performed on 87,214 patients at 1,125 centers, increasing by 24% between 2011 (n = 14,442) and 2016 (n = 17,907). The most common etiology was DLP (60.7%); 4.3% had functional mitral regurgitation. Preoperatively, 47.3% of patients had an ejection fraction less than 60% and 34.2% had atrial fibrillation. Overall mitral valve repair rate was 65.6%, declining from 67.1% (2011) to 63.2% (2016; p < 0.0001). Repair rates were related to etiology (DLP, 82.5%; rheumatic, 17.5%). Of the 29,970 mitral valve replacements, 16.2% were preceded by an attempted repair. Repair techniques included prosthetic annuloplasty (94.3%), leaflet resection (46.5%), and artificial cord implantation (22.7%). Bioprosthetic valves were implanted with increasing frequency (2011, 65.4%; 2016, 75.8%; p < 0.0001). Less-invasive operations were performed in 23.0% and concomitant tricuspid valve repair in 15.7%. Unadjusted operative mortality was 3.7% (replacements) and 1.1% (repairs).


Patients undergoing primary isolated mitral valve operations commonly have ventricular dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, and heart failure. Although contemporary outcomes are excellent, earlier guideline-directed referral and increased frequency and quality of repair may further improve results of mitral valve operations.

Page Created: July 16, 2019 Last Updated: July 16, 2019


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