A better understanding of the pathophysiology of IMR and increased awareness of its negative impact on long-term survival explain the recent rise in the number of patients referred for surgical correction of IMR at the time of coronary revascularization. The most common mechanism of IMR is Carpentier's type IIIb dysfunction, for which an undersized remodeling annuloplasty is the treatment of choice. In this article we define ischemic mitral regurgitation and review its pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, indication for surgery, and management.
- Amine Mazine, Nitish K Dhingra, Michael W A Chu, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Mark D Peterson
- Dimosthenis Pandis, MD, MSc, Anelechi C. Anyanwu, MD, FRCS, David H. Adams, MD, FACC
Direct access hybrid transatrial implantation of a Sapien 3 valve inside a bioprosthetic mitral valve with concomitant tricuspid valve replacement and cryoablationSophia L. Alexis, Gilbert H. L. Tang, Dimosthenis Pandis, David H. Adams, Ahmed El-Eshmawi
- Elbert E Williams, Ismail El-Hamamsy