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Ahmed El-Eshmawi, Gilbert H L Tang, Erick Sun, Sophia L Alexis, Busra Cangut, Dimosthenis Pandis, Percy Boateng, David H Adams

December 31, 2023 | JTCVS Techniques



Mitral annular calcification remains a formidable lesion in cardiac surgery with significant perioperative morbidity and mortality, particularly when en bloc annular decalcification is implemented. Respect strategies and hybrid approaches have provided safe alternatives. We report the short-term results of our institution's experience with mitral valve replacement in patients with extensive annular calcification.


This is a retrospective review of 72 consecutive patients with extensive annular calcification who underwent open surgical mitral valve replacement from January 1, 2013, to September 31, 2022. Degree of annular calcification was graded as partial, horseshoe, or circumferential. We excluded patients with calcification involving less than one-third of the annulus and patients with rheumatic heart disease.


Mean patient age was 71.6 ± 10.9 years, and 50 (69.4%) were female. There were 51 patients (70.8%) with New York Heart Association class 3 or greater and 47 patients (65.3%) with pulmonary hypertension. There were 41 patients (56.9%) with partial, 12 patients (16.7%) with horseshoe, and 19 patients (26.4%) with circumferential calcification. Fifty-six patients (77.8%) underwent conventional valve replacement. Sixteen patients underwent a hybrid procedure using balloon-expandable devices. Concomitant procedures were performed in 61 patients (84.7%). In-hospital mortality and 1-year survival were 3.57% and 82.8% in the standard valve replacement cohort and 25.0% and 54.7% in the hybrid cohort, respectively.


Conventional mitral valve replacement using respect strategies is safe and associated with good outcomes in patients with extensive annular calcification. Hybrid approaches using novel devices should remain as a bailout in select patients because of higher perioperative risks and poor short-term outcomes.

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Page Created: April 26, 2024 Last Updated: April 26, 2024


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